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Population growth in Africa essayEssay Writing Service
Population growth in Africa essayEssay Writing Service Population growth in Africa essay Population growth in Africa essayToday many developing countries are concerned about population-related challenges, which have a strong impact on social, cultural and economic development of human society. Africa is no exception. The growth of population in Africa is a key factor that lies at the root of many population-related challenges. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"currently, the developing world accounts for about 95% of the population growth with Africa as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest growing continentÃ¢â¬ (Hartemink, 2007, p. 85). In other words, Africa faces more population-related challenges than any other continent. Besides, many African countries are dependent on the industrial market economies of the developed countries as their domestic economies are unstable. Researches state that Ã¢â¬Å"poorly managed African economies remain essentially in the state of deteriorationÃ¢â¬ (Mbaku, 2004, p. 102). There are three major population-related challenges in Africa, includ ing starvation, urbanization which leads to inadequate housing, improper health care, and poverty. As African population has been growing rapidly, Ã¢â¬Å"from 221 million in 1950 to 1 billion in 2009,Ã¢â¬ the population-related challenges affect the life of each African family to a great extent (Africa Hunger and Poverty Facts, 2014). The rapid population growth, along with a wide range of other factors, such as poor economic system, deterioration in the environment and the spread of criminal violence, has considerably limited the Ã¢â¬Å"growth in per capita income, causing poverty and hungerÃ¢â¬ (Africa Hunger and Poverty Facts, 2014). The best strategy to address the major population-related challenges in Africa is the promotion of population control programs that will help to provide adequate conditions for social, economic and cultural development of people.The major goal of this paper is to identify three major population-related challenges in Africa, and present a strate gy to effectively address these problems.Three major population-related challenges in AfricaÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The major population-related challenges in Africa are caused by the largest population growth. Three significant population-related challenges in Africa include starvation, urbanization and poverty.Starvation as one of the major population-related problems in AfricaOne of the major population-related problems Africa faces today is the lack of enough food to feed all the people. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"starvation and famines have ravaged several African countriesÃ¢â¬ (Hartemink, 2007, p. 85). Somalis, Ethiopia, Angola, Sudan and many other African countries have faced serious problems caused by severe food shortages since the 1950-60s. Today the problem of starvation is an acute one in Africa. The growth of African population leads to the growing number of underweight children. The statistical data show that about Ã¢â¬Å"33 percent of ch ildren are underweight in AfricaÃ¢â¬ (Hall, 2006, p. 6). Starvation is caused by a wide range of factors, including economic, environmental, political and social factors. The African continent includes fifty four countries, and practically each country has encountered food crises (Hall, 2006).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Actually, food-related problems in African countries have been widely discussed in the media. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"the continued struggle to meet basic food needs has made it difficult for policymakers to devote any effort or resources to general economic developmentÃ¢â¬ (Mbaku, 2007, p. 9). African policymakers lack the required industrial base to achieve the surficial amount of products in food production industry, as well as the adequate foreign exchange that could allow to Ã¢â¬Å"import food from abroad to meet domestic shortagesÃ¢â¬ (Mbaku, 2007, p. 9).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a matter of fact, food is considered to be one of the major needs for all human beings. African people encounter inadequate distribution of food that fails to maintain good health condition of population. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Ã¢â¬Å"about 239 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were hungry or undernourished in 2010Ã¢â¬ (Africa Hunger and Poverty Facts, 2014).Urbanization as one of the significant population-related problemsUrbanization is another significant population-related problem in Africa. Researchers state that Ã¢â¬Å"since the late1960s, Africans have been moving from the rural and agricultural sectors to the urban sectors in large numbersÃ¢â¬ (Mbaku, 1997, p. 7). There are several factors that led to the increased rate of urbanization, including the lack of opportunities for economic development of people living in rural areas, the increased growth of population in rural areas, etc. Ã For example, in many countries of South Africa, rural people have to migr ate to the urban areas because of decreased farming opportunities. As a result, African people find themselves in the urban areas absolutely unprepared for urban life. They lack the required education, cannot speak English well, and have to support large families. They have to live in Ã¢â¬Å"crowded and unhealthy quarters,Ã¢â¬ being used as the cheap labor force (Mbaku, 2007, p. 7).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Urbanization has led to the problem of overcrowding in many urban areas of African countries. The increased demand for a wide range of infrastructural services places emphasis on other challenges caused by urbanization, including inadequate housing, the lack of the required amount of medical facilities, etc. (Mbaku, 2007).Poverty as one of the major population-related problems in African countriesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Poverty is one of the major population-related problems in Africa. Poverty is considered to be the major cause of hunge r in African countries.Ã In Africa, people do not have sufficient income to buy enough food to feed children. According to statistical data, in 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"about 47 percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa lived on $1.25 a day or less, a principal factor in causing widespread hungerÃ¢â¬ (Africa Hunger and Poverty Facts, 2014).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition, poverty leads to the spread of diseases, which jeopardize the lives of many African people. There are several factors that lead to spread of poverty in Africa, including not only diseases, but also natural disasters, warfare, forced migration, bad governance and illiteracyÃ¢â¬ (Brenzinger, 2009, p. 37). Actually, poverty in many African countries relates to certain social challenges, such as the lack of education and improper well-being. Besides, poverty in Africa can be characterized by some physical features, such as Ã¢â¬Å"short life expectancy and severe malnutritionÃ¢â¬ (Brenzing er, 2009, p. 37). Droughts in tropical Africa produce natural disasters. As a result, people face chronic food shortages, as well as lack sufficient food security. In some areas, African people have no access to clean drinking water and they face poor sanitation conditions.Presentation of the strategy to effectively addressthe major population-related problems in AfricaAs the majority of countries in Africa are characterized by relatively high population growth, the strategy to effectively address the major population-related challenges should be aimed at reduction population growth rate. Population-related challenges have led to the crises in many countries of Africa, including Sudan, Ethiopia, Chad, Somalia, Rwanda, and other countries with excessive population growth and poor eco-systems. It would be better to develop an effective strategy that will provide control over child bearing. It is necessary to develop the health care reform that would allow African women to have no more than two children (now they have five- six children) (Africa Hunger and Poverty Facts, 2014). According to researchers, in 1970s, the governments of many African countries were advised to develop national population control programs. These programs could encourage all citizens to assess the Ã¢â¬Å"dangers of uncontrolled population growth, educating them on the economic and social impact of bringing forth new lives without corresponding economic empowerment to bring them upÃ¢â¬ (Mataen, 2012, p. 23). However, these programs had no positive impact on African women, although in some countries the Ã¢â¬Å"number of children per woman came down from 7.2 to 6.5Ã¢â¬ (Mataen, 2012, p. 23).Today it is necessary to make this strategy more effective. It would be better to involve the developed countries that could act as sponsors in promoting population control programs in Africa. The governments of African countries should be focused on joint efforts in reduction the increased rate of population growth (Mataen, 2012). The governments of African countries should be aimed at extension of basic primary education, which will allow African people to find jobs and support their families. Besides, the governments should promote basic health care services to the larger part of their population. So, population growth should be reduced to create adequate conditions for social, economic and cultural development of people (Mataen, 2012).ConclusionÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thus, it is necessary to conclude that today African countries face serious population-related challenges that have a strong impact on social, cultural and economic development of people in Africa. The rapid growth of population is a key factor that lies at the root of many population-related challenges, including poverty, urbanization and starvation. The governments of African countries should develop effective strategies to reduce the increased rate of population growth and provide adeq uate conditions for social, economic and cultural development of people. The promotion of population control programs in Africa is the best solution to the existing population-related challenges.